December 09, 2012

Privateering in Elizabethan Era - The Lawful Piracy to Combat Rival Nations

Privateering in Elizabethan Era

The modern era comprises of international laws and globalization. But, when we give heed towards the Elizabethan era, we do not find any such thing, and the rulers of every nation were busy increasing the power. Every possible mean was being used for accomplishing this purpose of increasing the power. Their purpose was to strengthen the kingdom by hook or crook.

Privateering was one such act, which was meant for strengthening the nations through the mean, which is supposed to be unlawful according to the international laws of today. Privateering was a lawful piracy during that period. It is a known fact that piracy was prevalent in the seas and oceans in the Elizabethan period. The governments tried to take advantage of this act, and they issued the letters, according to which some of their officers were declared as pirates for raiding the treasure ships of the enemy nations. These legal pirates gained so much popularity that their pirate clothes also became part of fashion in the modern times.

In England, ‘Letter of Marque’ was issued, which is why a number of privateers came in the limelight that raided the Spanish and French Ships. These privateers were not only the lawful pirates, but were also the excellent explorers, who would explore the things from the other world. Moreover, they were also the government officers; therefore, they would sometimes go for the battles also. Some of the famous Elizabethan privateers include Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Richard Hawkins, Sir Martin Frobisher, Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Richard Grenville. Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh were two most famous privateers, who went for the battle with Spanish Armada also from the English side.

Other nations also used the privateers for the same purpose. France issued “lettre de marquee”, which was the French equivalent to the “letter of marquee”. In France, corsairs were the privateers, who were authorized to conduct the raids on behalf of France at the time of war with some other nation. Unlike English privateers, corsairs in France were not part of the French Navy, but still they were authorized to raid the ships of the enemy nations.

Privateering has been abolished nowadays, but people have still retained their memory in the form of pirate clothing. Similarly, the outfits of the outlaw raiders have also gained the huge fame. The pirate shirts, pants, skirts and gowns etc. of the lawful as well as outlaw raiders can be obtained from a number of websites of the online merchants.

November 14, 2012

Leonardo da Vinci - Polymath Who Contributed in Both Arts and Science

Leonardo da Vinci

Science and arts are supposed to be the opposite dimensions in the recent times by a number of people. But, do you know that there were a number of people in history, who mastered in both dimensions at the same time? Today also, we can find some people who have more than one skill. Leonardo da Vinci was one such polymath in the history whose name is known for mastering both the fields at the same time.

He was one of the greatest painters of his period. His famous portrait Mona Lisa is popular across the globe even today also. This wonderful painting has gained the attention of masses, and a lot of new versions of this painting have been developed by the modern artists. Moreover, “The Baptism of Christ”, is his another famous portrait, which he made in association with Verrocchio – Leonardo’s master. Many other paintings of this great painter have gained popularity.

In the field of science and technology, he provided the studies on many of the subjects, which were not developed during his era. It will not be wrong to say that Leonardo was centuries forward from his own time. Geometry, mechanics, nature, flying machines, municipal construction, canals and architecture are some on the subjects on which he researched. On the other hand, he also beautifully combined the technology and arts. For instance, he made the portrait of flying machine centuries ago from the invention of airplane by Wright Brothers. Moreover, he was recognized as a sculptor and a musician also.

So, there is no doubt that Leonardo was a genius, who worked in different dimensions. This multidimensional personality was born in the renaissance age, when art, culture and science in Europe were flourished up to a great extent. New styles of painting, sculpture and renaissance clothing came in the limelight. On the other hand, scientific revolution had also begun. As a polymath, there is no doubt that Leonardo played a significant role in both arts and science.

Apart from his dynamic ability, he was a kind man, who loved humans as well as animals. His clear view was that one should be vegetarian and keep mercy on animals if meat is not necessary for health. Moreover, he was always ready to help others. We can take the instance of incidence in this regard. Once, a local peasant in simple renaissance dresses requested him to paint a shield for him.  Leonardo first made a painting of a demon spitting the fire. He sold the painting, made the profit and then decorated the shield with heart pierced by an arrow, and gave it to the peasant.

His ability and kindheartedness gave him so much fame that Francis I, king of Milan, took his head in his hands, when he (Leonardo) was on the deathbed. This great man left this world in the year 1547.

October 21, 2012

Henry VII and Foundation of Tudor Era in England

Henry VII

Tudor clan was one of the long-lasting dynasties in the history of England. The emperors of this dynasty were known for their positive and negative traits. The kingdom of this dynasty was founded in the late medieval era in Europe by Henry VII, which ended in renaissance age with Elizabeth I. The age of Henry was the era of elegance, and the famous cultural and artistic movement was going to occur. So, a lot of growth was witnessed in various trends of art during this period. Today also, the medieval costumes of this era have become part of the fashion world.

Henry VII was born on 28th January 1457 and was crowned on 22nd August 1485. He became the monarch after giving defeat to Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. Henry was the last king of England who won the throne in the battlefield. There was a great upheaval in England after the Battle of the Roses. He successfully restored the stability and power of English monarchy.

Henry was born at Pembroke Castle in the west of Wales. The name of his father was Edmund Tudor who was the first Earl of Richmond. His mother Margaret Beaufort was Countess of Richmond and Derby. He father was died shortly before his birth. On the other hand, his mother was only 13 years old at the time of his birth. So, his paternal uncle, Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke, was his formal guardian. Despite being a Welshman of Welsh royal lineage, his father was not so important for his claim to the English throne. His heritage was important from the side of his mother who was the descendent of Edward III. Because of the deaths of his Royal cousins, Henry got the claim of throne. He won the throne at the age of 27, although he was not trained.

The policy of Henry VII was to create peace and prosperity. He was not a military person, so he had no interest in regaining the French territories which were lost during periods of his predecessors. He was an economically competent emperor, and his most successful achievement was Magnus Intercursus, which means “greet agreement” in 1496 with Philip IV, Duke of Burgundy. After the successful kingdom of 24 years, he died on 21st April 1509, after nine years of the commencement of the renaissance era. This was the era of flamboyance, and the popular renaissance clothing, belongs to this era. After his death, his son Henry VIII was succeeded to throne.

The Tudor dynasty ruled England for a long duration of around 118 years. It commenced in 1485 with the enthronement of Henry VI and ended with the death of Elizabeth I in 1603. The reign of this dynasty is remembered today also in England. The successful foreign and economic policies and barbaric killings of innocent Protestants – both took place during the reign of this dynasty.

September 26, 2012

Peasant Women – Real Heroines of the Middle Ages

The medieval society has various classes such as royals, nobles, farmers, peasants and many others. Among them, the lives of the peasants were hardest, as they had to do the tough labors in the fields of others. Several other hard works were also assigned to these peasants, also known as serfs. Earning their livelihood was the major focus of lives of the serfs, so they had no scope of the artistic activities. The medieval costumes of these peasants used to have very simple and basic.

As a matter of the fact, the lives of peasant women were much harder than men. They had to help their husbands in their works, plus they had to manage the household works such as cooking the meal. The daily life of a woman in a peasant family would start at 3 A.M. First, she had to prepare breakfast in the morning for the family. In the day time, she had to go the fields with her husband for harvesting and other works of the farms. Moreover, she also had to make arrangements for the daily lunch and dinner.

Besides, it was also expected from women to take care of the small animal such as geese and chicken. Moreover, mending the clothes, weaving and spinning were also part of the life of the females. Collecting the berries and herbs was also under their responsibility. Moreover, they were also required to have knowledge of basic herbs for the nursing the family. Similar to most of the cultures, taking care of the children of the family was also the responsibility of the women.

Working hours in the summer days used to have longer as compared to the winter season. Most of the time of the women was spent in fields, household works and children, so they had very little leisure time. The medieval dresses of the women would be made up of wool, and the lifestyle used to be simple.

The abovementioned facts state that the role of peasant women was much important than men. They were in the center of households, and life for men was almost impossible for them. Therefore, it will not be wrong to say that females had much significant role in the uplift of the society in the medieval era.

Moreover, the role of women in the other sections of the society apart from peasants can also not be denied. Still, there was discrimination with women – it is really shocking.

September 03, 2012

Have Fun with Variety of Reenactment Activities in Renaissance Festivals

Reenactment Activities in Renaissance Festivals

Reenactment of the historical events is very common in various festivals in the recent times. Participants attempt to recreate the historical events or period in such activities. Reenactment of the renaissance period is very popular in the present scenario, in which the events of that golden era are reenacted. That was the era of reawakening and exploration. The activities may differ depending upon the festivals. But, some of the activities remain common, such as the reenactment of English Civil Wars. It was the eighty year wars of Low Countries (historical lands around the low-lying delta).

Moreover, some other such reenactments may also take place in these fares. Sometimes, some other significant battles of history are also demonstrated. Besides, various activities are performed without focusing on a particular war. For instance, the jousting activities in which one horseman in the medieval clothing hits the other one with lance, is very much popular in the festivals of today. Moreover, archery competitions and demonstrations are also the brilliant forms of reenactment.

Apart from the battles, many other types of activities take place in the fares, which provide the entertainment as well as education to the people. For example, the occupations of the people of that era are also perfectly demonstrated in the faire. Blacksmithing was one of the major occupations during that era, which is well-demonstrated in the renaissance festivals. Besides, the medieval style storytelling also remains the special allure of the event.

The festival is divided into weekends in order to provide the demonstrations of distinct activities. Every weekend has a distinct theme that takes the visitor to another world. In some of the festivals, one weekend is kept reserved for the reenactment of the pirate lifestyle also. On the other hand, some fictional reenactments can also be witnessed in some the weekends of some festivals. The steampunk weekends are the best examples in this regard. Steampunk is the modified version of the Victorian age, which is based on the futuristic technology.

Beside, the people in various renaissance costumes can also be considered as a wonderful reenactment activity. Pants, skirts, shirts, and many other dresses of the reawakening era, are worn by visitors and the participants. On the other hand, these dresses have also become the fashion statement in the recent times. You can see the people wearing them in the other themed events also.

While watching the reenactment activities of the festivals, visitors feel like stepping back to 400 years ago from today.

August 24, 2012

Glance of Pirate Lifestyle in Arabian Nights

Pirate Lifestyle

The treasure hunt of the pirate lifestyle is the subject of fascination among a large number of people across Europe and America. On the other hand, the funky clothing of the raiders also became a prominent allure. Pirate clothing, shirts, skirts, corsets and many other outfits for both men and women are the fashion-statements in the recent times. Besides, the glimpse of the raiders’ lifestyle can be witnessed in a number of films and video games.

As a matter of the surprise, you can witness this lifestyle in a number of conventional stories of distinct nations also. “Arabian Nights”, otherwise known as “One Thousand and One Nights”, can be taken as an example, which is the collection of stories of West and South Asia. These stories take us to the Islamic golden era, but we find a lot of fiction in the form of magic and supernatural events. These interesting tales comprise of voyages of some great fictional personalities. Quite obviously, the pirate lifestyle can also be witnessed occasionally in these tales. The characters in the Arabian Nights have to face the robbers across the sea occasionally. Especially in the modern versions of these tales, this lifestyle can be witnessed more vividly.

The story of Sinbad can be taken as an instance in this respect. Sinbad is a sailor who goes for the voyages, and he has to face different enemies. He himself is not raiders, but surprisingly he has been shown as a pirate in some of the modern version of stories. The famous animated film “Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas”, is a perfect instance in this respect. In the film, Sinbad is a sea rover and has a crew. But, he is not like typical rovers who loot the ships of wealthy people. He and his crew attempt to steal a magical and mystical book named “Book of Peace”. The pirate boots of Sinbad is also different from the typical raider’s costumes. The costume looks beautiful, but it unquestionably reflects the sea rovers’ lifestyle. In the traditional stories also, Sinbad is a sailor. We all know that the sailor-like attitude of the freebooters is one of the prominent things, which are liked by the people of today. So, the character of Sinbad can also be a subject of allure for them.

These stories provide the wonderful stuff for people with variant interests. The tales are interesting and will take you to another world.

July 10, 2012

Commencement of Renaissance Age: Reasons & Impacts

Renaissance Clothing
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Renaissance Age was unquestionably an unforgettable time for the European people. This was the period when a popular art and cultural movement took place in that continent. This movement impacted the people, and a drastic change was witnessed in every walk of life. It was started in middle-ages, and some people consider its proceeding eras as dark-ages.  The dark-ages were the eras of economic decline, and technological & intellectual stagnation. A lot of dogmatism was witnessed in the early medieval times also. The society was under the control of orthodox churches, and all the literature preserved in the courts and monasteries of Europe was ignored. Then the intellectuals like Martin Luther and John Calvin came in limelight who gave a new direction to the society. This was the period of renaissance movement, when all walks of life were seen in a new light.

There were several reasons behind the commencement of this period.  The ignored classic literature was revived by various scholars, which became a prominent aspect in giving a different direction to the society. Besides, printing press was launched, so it became easy to spread the cultural awareness by mass publishing of classics. On the other hand, the hand of support was extended by rulers and some of the churches, which also helped in flourishing the movement. In addition, some nations contacted with each other in various ways. For instance, hundred years war between England and some groups of France was ceased, and these nations shared the ideas of the movement. On the contrary, a new war was started between England and Italy, which is why these nations came in contact of each other.

When the reawakening age started a number of changes took place in society. People became much aware about art and culture. This tendency was lacking up to a great extent before that era. The lifestyles of people were changed according to the new cultural parameters. Various creative expressions in all facets of daily life were witnessed.

Renaissance Shirt
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A huge change was observed in the dressing styles of people also.  The reason behind the change is not very clear, but the movement may be a big cause behind it. Before this era, people used to wear the simple and natural costumes. Most of these dresses were made from wool. But, in renaissance age, people started wearing the shining and flamboyant outfits.  A lot of modification was done in the costumes.

But, there was a community who was still unaffected with the movement. It was the peasant community, which was the group of labor-class. These people had no scope of change due to their hard lifestyle. With the passage of time, they also became part of the middle-class society and acquired the cultural impact of the movement. These people used to wear practical and basic dresses, but they accepted the showy dresses after becoming part of the movement.

In the present scenario, the renaissance style clothing has become the fashion-statement of the people. You can acquire these dresses for parties, festivals and casual gathering from a number of websites like &